The People ‘s Assembly System
The people’s assembly system is China’s fundamental political system. According to the Constitution, all the powers of the People’s Republic of China belong to the people. The NPC and local people’s assemblies at different levels are the organizations that exercise the power of the people. The first National People’s Congress held in 1954 marked the establishment of the popular assembly system in China.
The four main functions of the AFN – legislation, supervision, appointments and dismissals, and important business decisions – also reflect that the Chinese people have the power to manage their own destiny through the AFN system. The political structural reform of China consists of continuing, perfecting and developing the system of people’s assembly. Since the Third Plenary Session of the Central Committee of the XIth CPC Congress held in 1978, the system of popular assembly has been improved and sustained.
Fifty years of experience prove that the system of people’s assembly fits perfectly with the Chinese situation. It allows the entire population to exercise power, be fully involved in making policies to lead the country and allows the State organs to co-operate closely with the socialist construction by dividing the task.
Multi-stakeholder cooperation and policy consultation
The party system applied in China is multiparty cooperation under the leadership of the CCP and the political consultation system. Beginning in the period of democratic revolution established in 1949 at the foundation of the People’s Republic of China and in development since the third plenary session of the Central Committee of the XIth CPC Congress in 1978, the system is improving with common efforts from the CCP and other democratic parties since a long application of revolution, construction and reform.
Different from the multiparty or bipartite systems of the West, and the one-party system of some countries, the party system of China is characterized by the leadership of the CCP, cooperation between multiple parties, the ruling CCP and participation of multiple parties in the government of the country. Instead of forming an opposition, democratic parties are friendly parties of the CCP and participate in political affairs in union and cooperation with the CCP. “Long-term coexistence, mutual control, frank collaboration and sharing of honors and dishonor” are the fundamental principles that guide the CCP’s cooperation with democratic parties. The CCP and the democratic parties regard the Constitution as a fundamental norm of their activities. The various democratic parties enjoy political freedom, organizational autonomy and equal legal status according to the constitutional limits prescribed. The Constitution states: “Multi-party cooperation and the political consultation system under the leadership of the CCP are developing constantly.